Tree time

With Arbor Day falling on June 5 it’s a good time to ask some experts about their favourite trees for autumn colour.

Gordon Collier, who developed Titoki Point garden between Taihape and Waiouru (closed to visitors since Gordon moved on), now gardens on the shores of Lake Taupo and says  if he had to pick just one tree it would be Cornus Eddie’s White Wonder – pictured here in spring and autumn.

“It has brilliant autumn colour and beautiful flowers in spring – and the American dogwoods don’t get too big so it’s a good tree all round. Both Eddie’s White Wonder and Cornus florida are good for colder climates.”

Gordon, an advisor to the New Zealand Gardens Trust, also recommends Gingko biloba, Cotinus Grace, one of the American smoke bush shrubs that grow to tree size, and Japanese and American maples, especially Acer rubrum (red maple) which has spectacular colour and is notable for its tolerance of wet soils and air pollution.

Gingko leaves in autumn.

“I’d like to recommend Fraxinus raywoodii, the claret ash,” he says, “but it gets very brittle.”

John Wakeling, who with wife Dorothy has planted some 18,000 trees since they began Waitakaruru Arboretum and Sculpture Park 20 years ago in a disused quarry near Hamilton, also recommends Cornus florida, saying it is an “exciting” tree.

“We have Nyssa sylvatica, or tupelo, but although the colours are good, the leaves don’t hang on.

The tupelo, Nyssa sylvatica, doesn’t mind having wet feet.

“The Japanese maples and American maples are generally good but we find that sugar maples [Acer saccharum] don’t do so well here and lose their leaves in March.”

John likes the combination of yellow leaves and white bark of Betula nigra (river birch) and Betula utilis jacquemontii (Himalayan birch) and as an alternative to the common Liquidamber styraciflua recommends the delicate colours of Liquidamber formosana (Chinese liquidamber).

“Oaks are good too – even if they’re not particularly vibrant the leaves hang on. But there are some strong colours from pinoaks [Quercus palustris], red oaks [Quercus falcate] and scarlet oaks [Quercus coccinea].”

A scarlet oak planted by the roadside in Turangi.

Ruth Appleton has developed an arboretum in a valley at Pahoia, near Tauranga, and always intended it to be an autumn garden.

Her pick of the bunch? Cornus florida Cherokee Daybreak (see a photo here).

“The leaves change colour throughout the year, becoming very intense in autumn and it has white flowers in spring.”

Another of her autumn favourites, although more often noted for spring flowers, are ornamental cherries – among them Prunus Kanzan, Prunus Hillieri Spire, Prunus Ukon and Prunus Tai Haku.

The autumn colour of Taxodium distichum. A weeping form is also available.

And Ruth, who has created five ponds along the swampy valley floor, couldn’t be without Taxodium distichum, the swamp cypress which turns a vivid rusty orange in autumn before dropping its needles.

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Maori garden in France

A “Maori Garden” in is being officially opened in France on May 30, to coincide with Matariki.

The Te Putake project has been led by a Ngai Tahu team working in partnership with a team from the renowned Moselle Conseil General Fruit Gardens in Laquenexy, Moselle, in north-eastern France. (The French name is prettier, Jardins Fruitiers.)

The leader of the Kiwi team is Tutehounuku (Nuk) Korako, who was project manager of the award-winning Te Waipounamu Garden at the 2010 Ellerslie International Flower Show. His team includes Ngai Tahu architect Perry Royal and master carver Riki Manuel (Ngati Porou).

The French team is led by garden designer Pascal Garbe, who is the project manager for the Gardens Policy with the Moselle Conseil General. He was International Garden Tourism Person of the Year in 2011 in North America and star judge at the Ellerslie International Flower Show in 2011.

The garden features native totara and kauri carvings from wood and rock sourced from destroyed buildings within the Christchurch, Lyttelton and Rapaki earthquake zones.

There will also be a 120kg pounamu boulder from the West Coast, a 53,000-year-old kauri stump from Kaipara, and three mauri (spiritual) stones sourced from Shag Rock (Sumner), a pa site in the Christchurch CBD and Lyttelton Harbour.

The garden will be a permanent fixture within the Fruit Gardens which already feature the Canadian First Nations Garden, Ohtehra, created in 2010.

Read more about Te Putake and see a concept design here.

Roving reporter

My friend Pat is in Europe on a garden tour and has kindly sent a couple of photos she thought readers may be interested in. (For reasons of privacy I will add Pat’s surname as a photo credit only when she’s back in New Zealand.)

The winning Australia Garden from the Chelsea Flower Show. Don’t you love the corrugated iron water tank peeping out from behind the ‘pod’?

This is why people flock to the Keukenhof Gardens at Lisse in The Netherlands in spring. This year the garden was open from March 20 to May 18.

Read more about the Keukenhof, or plan your 2014 trip, here.

Chelsea digest

Ah to be a garden writer in England
now that Chelsea’s here …

Well, I’ll just have to be content with reading the opinions of others – and what a blast they’re all having. I heard Rosemary Alexander speak  (briefly, it was in the middle of a talk on gardening in general) about her judging experience at Chelsea. Battle royale seemed to sum up the awarding of medals.

I mention that because one of the designers who didn’t win Best in Show has been complaining, prompting erudite garden writer Tim Richardson to explain the system to us mere mortals. Quote of the week: “They are spraying gold medals round like confetti.”

Garden Drum blogger Catherine Stewart of Australia has posted the first of her review of gardens, summarised as “a bit boring” (apart from the Best in Show Australian garden, of course). Read it here.

And here’s a look at some of the new plants being introduced at Chelsea, including one we must hope makes it these distant shores – Cercis canadensis Ruby Falls, a weeping form that has the popular Forest Pansy as one parent. New foliage emerges brick red, later darkening and then turning yellow in autumn.

Friday digest

For your weekend reading pleasure …

Local: Food Foragers Initiative is a new project in Katikati, based at Te Runanga O Ngai Tamawhariua (22-24 Waterford Rd, just off the main road) that stems from frustration at seeing so much food go to waste – rotting in gardens, orchards and at businesses. If you have something to donate to the group  phone Maria 549 1270, Elizabeth 027 768 8987 or Karen 549 0760.  Alternatively, if you know of someone who is in need of additional fresh food, head along to the Runanga and see what is available.

National: Loved this column by Abbie Jury on why lawns are bad for the environment. I’ve been muttering about lawns for years after hearing Trish Waugh on the subject of sustainability, but people don’t seem to get it. Have a lawn by all means, but at least know what it’s costing the environment.

Global: The World Landscape Art Exposition alongside Longqi Bay in Jinzhou, China  opened this month with two New Zealand companies involved in an ambitious project that runs until October and expects to attract 10 million visitors! (Surely, a case for an exclamation mark.) The exhibition covers 7 square kilometres and each design area runs about 3000sqm!

Prorata Landscape Architecture of Palmerston North has created the Aotearoa Park and Bespoke Landscape Architects of Howick, Auckland, the Waka Wetland

Read more about the expo here.

Listening: National Radio’s Katherine Ryan this week interviewed John Bunker, a nurseryman from Maine and the founder of Fedco Seeds Trees. John is trying to save heirloom apple varieties and over the last 30 years, estimates he’s rescued some 100 varieties from oblivion. He also talks about the old apples being often not good eating apples but perfect for cooking, preserving and making cider – and how modern consumers don’t “get” that. (The broadcast is 28 minutes, 12 seconds.)

Marvellous ‘mushrooms’

Rainy is Shirley Kerr’s preferred kind of weather – it means her favourite plants are lifting up their heads and “fruiting”.

Shirley is a keen amateur mycologist (someone who studies fungi) who likes nothing better than heading off to the bush in damp conditions to try and spot something new for her extensive photo collection.

It was her love of photography that brought her to fungi – natural history photos entered into Tauranga Camera Club competitions had to be properly named – and it was someone she met while trying to identify a fungus that introduced the retired Athenree relief teacher to a whole new world.

“He introduced me to the annual New Zealand Fungal Forays run by Landcare Research, and I discovered there were a lot of others who were mad keen on fungi.” This year’s foray was  based around Matawai on East Cape and took place from May 12-18.

Fungus at McLaren Falls Park. Photo: Sandra Simpson

Shirley has regularly attended forays around New Zealand, has been to Australia to look for fungi and has her own website of photographs and information.

“It’s good to go to another area,” she says of the forays, which comprise of a day out photographing and collecting and evenings spent on identification – with always one or two rarities emerging.

`”We’ve got a bit of native beech in the Kaimai Range, but in the South Island you get several varieties of beech in one place – and where’s there beech, there’s interesting miconzal fungus.”

Shirley says there’s probably been about 9000 New Zealand fungi named and there’s probably that many again waiting to be found and named.

“They definitely need a moist environment. They won’t fruit unless conditions are right.”

But, she quickly adds, all that’s needed to get interested in fungi is a good pair of eyes and an inquiring mind.

Photographed in Puketoki Reserve, Whakamarama. Photo: Sandra Simpson

“There’s plenty of interest that pops up in lawns, although they tend to be drably coloured. Ileodictyon cibarium [basket fungus] can appear in bark mulch. It starts out as an ‘egg’ then out this odd thing pops.

“There’s always something beside the track in the bush. You don’t have to go searching for them. I’d never seen a Hygrocybe conica [blackening waxcap] until a few years ago – then a year or two later I spotted some in my own street frontage.”

She has found the only pink enteloma in New Zealand, although the professional mycologists want to see if another one turns up before they record it as a separate species, and Shirley also found an Entoloma congregatum, only the second one ever to be recorded in this country.

She uses a 1:1 macro lens to record her finds and spends a lot of time on her hands and knees in the bush. “I have a bad habit of keeping my eyes down, when there’s just as much to see on tree trunks – and you don’t have to stray off the tracks to make good finds.”

The vibrant colour of the fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) serves as a danger warning. This fungus is highly toxic. Photo: Sandra Simpson

She was intrigued, but not surprised, that a fungi garden had won the supreme award at Ellerslie International Flower Show in 2010 – the Hygrocybe family are known in Europe as “the orchids of the field”, thanks to their bright colours, although in New Zealand they are not found in grassland, only bush. (The link leads to a news video which shows something of the garden. For reasons best known to the internet I can’t load up any of my own photos of the garden!)

“The garden probably opened people’s eyes to how beautiful fungi can be,” Shirley says.

Taranaki pioneer Chew Chong established a lucrative export trade in wood ear fungus (Auricularia polytricha), which became known as “Taranaki wool” and was regarded as a delicacy in China, but, says Shirley, there are very few examples of edible native fungi.

“Some were known to be eaten by the Maori, but probably only in times of severe food shortages. I’ve tried a couple and they’re not very nice.”

In the Western Bay of Plenty, Shirley recommends Puketoki Reserve (Whakamarama), the short loop track at Aongatete Forest (end of Wright Rd) and McLaren Falls Park for fungi spotting. Don’t handle or eat anything you have not definitively identified. Most fungi in New Zealand are not safe to eat.

To see more of Shirley Kerr’s photographs go to her website Kaimai Bush which also includes sections on lichen, native orchids and mosses.

This article first appeared in the Bay of Plenty Times and is reproduced here with permission.